– then your renin- angiotensin system produces the  dipeptide VY …  a cleavage product size Ang-(3-4): The Researchers have  found  that this natural product of  normal renin-angiotensin system  can even  exogenously  be beneficial. When VY is functional,  there   must be  an ideal homeostasis  between  the two main axis of Renin -angiotensin system and even KKK system ( kininogen-kallikrein system):

RAS 2 main axis:

ACE1-AngII-AT1R axis

ACE2-Ang-(1-9)- MasR axis.



1. Intact absorption of the bioactive dipeptide Val-Tyr (VY), with in vivo antihypertensive ability in normotensive human subjects, was investigated. 2. As a result of a single oral administration of VY, the VY absorption curve occurred maximally over the second hour postprandially; a greater than 10-fold higher increment of VY following a dose of 12 mg was observed in the plasma at 2 h compared with the baseline concentration of VY at 0 h (1934 +/- 145 vs 159 +/- 11 fmol/mL plasma, respectively). 3. Plasma VY levels increased with dose administered (3, 6 and 12 mg), suggesting that exogenous VY could be absorbed intact into the human blood depending on the dose. The elimination half time (t1/2) of VY was estimated to be 3.1 h. The area under the curve for the 12 mg VY dose was 9185 +/- 688 fmol small middle doth/mL plasma.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]


Youll find here a very good map of RAS and  KKK system!

COVID-19. Deep-dive

February 26, 2020

ACE2 effective receptor  to  nCoV  S protein

ACE and ACE2 enzymes

February 25, 2020

ACE and ACE2 in Inflammation: A Tale of Two Enzymes

Author(s): Ravinder Reddy Gaddam, Stephen Chambers, Madhav Bhatia.

Journal Name: Inflammation & Allergy – Drug Targets (Discontinued)
(Formerly Current Drug Targets – Inflammation & Allergy)

Volume 13 , Issue 4 , 2014

DOI : 10.2174/1871528113666140713164506

Click to access SARS-CoV-2-risk-assessment-14-february-2020.pdf.pdf


The virus: SARS-CoV-2

The disease, caused by SARS-CoV-2,  is COVID-19.

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