Nudix hydrolases are found in all classes of organism and hydrolyse a wide range of organic pyrophosphates, including nucleoside di- and triphosphates, dinucleoside and diphosphoinositol polyphosphates, nucleotide sugars and RNA caps, with varying degrees of substrate specificity. Some superfamily members, such as Escherichia coli MutT, have the ability to degrade potentially mutagenic, oxidised nucleotides while others control the levels of metabolic intermediates and signalling compounds. In prokaryotes and simple eukaryo tes, the number of Nudix genes varies from 0 to over 30, reflecting the metabolic complexity and adaptability of the organism. Mammals have around 24 Nudix genes, several of which encode more than one variant. This review integrates the sizeable recent literature on these proteins with information from global functional genomic studies to provide some insights into the possible roles of different superfamily members in cellular metabolism and homeostasis and to stimulate discussion and further research into this ubiquitous protein family.

Ukraina, Crim and Russia

November 28, 2018


Report:10,000 Iranian trained Syrian soldiers posted on Israeli border

Tuesday, November 27, 2018

i24news reported that the Syrian Regime has deployed a new division of 10,000 troops on the Israeli-Syrian border. The troops were trained and are led by officers of Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard special forces, the Al-Quds Forces.

17. Ruan H-B, Nie Y, Yang X. Regulation of protein degradation by O-GlcNAcylation: crosstalk with ubiquitination. Mol Cell Proteomics (2013) 12:3489–97. doi: 10.1074/mcp.R113.029751

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Just over thirty years ago, the O-linked N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylation, termed O-GlcNAcylation, was discovered inside the mouse lymphocyte cells by Torres and Hart (1). From this discovery, about 1,400 studies were focused on this field among hundreds of other known post-translational modifications. Nowadays, scientific community shows a growing interest since half of these previous studies was published in the last 5 years, and provides more and more relevant data to better characterize the impact of O-GlcNAcylation on cellular processes. It is ubiquitous from virus to plantae and metazoan, and to date around 4000 O-GlcNAc-modified proteins have been identified (2). O-GlcNAcylation seems to be an important molecular process in biology, especially since ubiquitous OGT and OGA knockout mice experiments revealed that O-GlcNAcylation balance is crucial for embryonic stem cell viability and embryonic development (3, 4); recent data also supported the essential role of O-GlcNAcylation in adult life since inducible global knockout of OGT dramatically increased mice mortality (5).


Waters of the Earth

November 26, 2018

The Earth is a watery place. But just how much water exists on, in, and above our planet? About 71 percent of the Earth’s surface is water-covered, and the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth’s water. Water also exists in the air as water vapor, in rivers and lakes, in icecaps and glaciers, in the ground as soil moisture and in aquifers, and even in you and your dog.

Deserts ot The Planet Earth

November 26, 2018

What is a Desert?

A desert is a landscape or region that receives very little precipitation – less than 250 mm per year (about ten inches). Approximately 1/3 of Earth’s land surface is a desert. There are four different types of deserts based upon their geographic situation: 1) polar deserts, 2) subtropical deserts, 3) cold winter deserts, and 4) cool coastal deserts. As shown on the map above, deserts occur on all of Earth’s continents.

Major Deserts of the World

Name Type of Desert Surface Area Location
Antarctic Polar 5.5 million mi² Antarctica
Arctic Polar 5.4 million mi² Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia
Sahara Subtropical 3.5 million mi² Northern Africa
Arabian Subtropical 1 million mi² Arabian Peninsula
Gobi Cold Winter 500,000 mi² China and Mongolia
Patagonian Cold Winter 260,000 mi² Argentina
Great Victoria Subtropical 250,000 mi² Australia
Kalahari Subtropical 220,000 mi² South Africa, Botswana, Namibia
Great Basin Cold Winter 190,000 mi² United States
Syrian Subtropical 190,000 mi² Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia
Chihuahuan Subtropical 175,000 mi² Mexico
Great Sandy Subtropical 150,000 mi² Australia
Kara-Kum Cold Winter 135,000 mi² Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan
Colorado Plateau Cold Winter 130,000 mi² United States
Gibson Subtropical 120,000 mi² Australia
Sonoran Subtropical 120,000 mi² United States, Mexico
Kyzyl-Kum Cold Winter 115,000 mi² Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan
Taklamakan Cold Winter 105,000 mi² China
Iranian Cold Winter 100,000 mi² Iran
Thar Subtropical 75,000 mi² India, Pakistan
Simpson Subtropical 56,000 mi² Australia
Mojave Subtropical 54,000 mi² United States
Atacama Cool Coastal 54,000 mi² Chile
Namib Cool Coastal 13,000 mi² Angola, Namibia, South Africa


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