ACE inhibitors and COVID‐19: We don’t know yet
Taqua R. Khashkhusha
Jeffrey Shi Kai Chan MBChB
Amer Harky MBChB, MRCS, MSc
First published: 27 April 2020

. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 Sep 1.
Published in final edited form as:
PMCID: PMC5001899
PMID: 27250345

Regulation of hematopoietic development by ZBTB transcription factors

2020 Jan 27;8(3):1415-1422. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.1423. eCollection 2020 Mar.

Novel dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides released from quinoa protein by in silico proteolysis.

The frequency of the occurrence of peptides with given activity in quinoa protein performed by BIOPEP. (1. ACE inhibitor; 2. Peptide activating ubiquitin‐mediated proteolysis; 3. α‐glucosidase inhibitor; 4. Antiamnestic peptide; 5. Anticancer peptide; 6. Antioxidative peptide; 7. Calcium‐binding peptide; 8. Antithrombotic peptide; 9. Bacterial permease ligand; 10. DPP‐IV inhibitor; 11. Embryotoxic; 12. Hydroxy methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor; 13. Renin inhibitor; 14. Immunomodulating peptide; 15. CaMPDE inhibitor; 16. Neuropeptide; 17. Peptide regulating the stomach mucosal membrane activity; 18. Glucose uptake stimulating peptide.)

Different enzymes have different potential to release bioactive peptides from proteins, which attribute to their specific cleavage sites (Gomez et al., 2019). For example, Fu et al. (2016) performed in silico proteolysis of bovine collagen by twenty‐seven different enzymes and found that papain was the most effective protease to release ACE inhibitory peptides theoretically. In our study, papain‐treated quinoa proteins (except 11S‐1) exerted relatively higher release frequency index of DPP‐IV inhibitors than the other two enzymes. Similarly, papain has relative strong potential as an enzyme releasing ACE inhibitory peptides from quinoa proteins (except 11S‐2). This might be because papain shared most of the cutting sites with two other enzymes, except for those from the N‐terminus (Appendix S3).

2020 Apr 8. doi: 10.1002/phar.2395. [Epub ahead of print]

Therapeutic Potential for Tetracyclines in the Treatment of COVID-19.


Currently there is a race against time to identify prophylactic and therapeutic treatments against COVID-19. Until these treatments are developed, tested and mass produced, it might be prudent to look into existing therapies that could be effective against this virus. Based on the available evidence we believe that tetracyclines may be effective agents in the treatment of COVID-19. Tetracyclines (e.g. tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline) are highly lipophilic antibiotics that are known to chelate zinc compounds on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)1 . Coronaviruses are also known to heavily rely on host MMPs for survival, cell infiltration, cell to cell adhesion, and replication, many of which have zinc as part of their MMP complex2,3 . It is possible that the zinc chelating properties of tetracyclines may also aid in inhibiting COVID-19 infection in humans limiting their ability to replicate within the host.


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