Article and   video  has been  robbed  from  internet. you tube video from the Hospital Jose Ignacio Baldo( caracas) . Now abandoned, looted.

El Infierno de los hospitales de Venezuela | Qué Vaina!

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17 apr. 2019 – EL Hospital General Dr. José Ignacio Baldó también conocido como Hospital El … Libertador del Distrito Capital, al oeste de la ciudad de Caracas y al centro … Hace 80 años el hospital José ignacio Baldó (El Algodonal) era …

Example FMD: OIE  rapport. Venezuela Country and zone without an official status for FMD.


Total population (2016) 31,568,000
Gross national income per capita (PPP international $, 2013) 17,890
Life expectancy at birth m/f (years, 2016) 70/79
Probability of dying under five (per 1 000 live births, 2017) 31
Probability of dying between 15 and 60 years m/f (per 1 000 population, 2016) 217/93
Total expenditure on health per capita (Intl $, 2014) 923
Total expenditure on health as % of GDP (2014) 5.3
Latest data available from the Global Health Observatory

This page links all WHO information to its response on the Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

Outbreaks and emergencies

  • Zika virus infection – Venezuela
    3 December 2015
  • On 27 November 2015, the National IHR Focal Point of Venezuela received notification of 7 suspected cases of Zika virus infection. The diagnoses were made by the national reference laboratory, the “Rafael Rangel” National Institute of Hygiene. Four samples tested positive for Zika virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results were re-confirmed by Colombia’s National Institute of Health (INS). The cases, whose age ranges from 40 to 55 years old, are all women from areas that border Brazil. Venezuelan health authorities are implementing prevention and control measures. Investigations are ongoing.

    WHO advice

    Given the increased transmission of Zika virus in the Region of the Americas, PAHO/WHO recommends that its Member States establish and maintain the capacity to detect and confirm cases of Zika virus infection, prepare their health services for a potential additional burden at all levels of health care, and implement an effective public communications strategy to reduce the mosquitoes that transmit this disease, particularly in areas where this vector is present. The complete set of recommendations is available in the latest Epidemiological Update (see related links).

Synthetic Cartilage

April 28, 2019

Biomacromolecules. 2019 Apr 22.

doi: 10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00237. [Epub ahead of print]
Double Network Hydrogels that Mimic the Modulus, Strength and Lubricity of Cartilage.
Means AK, Shrode CS, Whitney LV, Ehrhardt DA, Grunlan MA.

The development of a hydrogel-based synthetic cartilage has the potential to overcome many limitations of current chondral defect treatments. Many efforts have attempted to replicate the unique characteristics of cartilage in hydrogels, but none simultaneously achieved high modulus, strength and toughness while maintaining the necessary hydration required for lubricity. Herein, double network (DN) hydrogels, composed of a poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) 1st network and a poly(N-isopropyl-acrylamide-co-acrylamide) [P(NIPAAm-co-AAm)] 2nd network, are evaluated as a potential off-the-shelf material for cartilage replacement. While predominantly used for its thermosensitivity, PNIPAAm is employed to achieve superior mechanical properties and its thermal transition temperature tuned above the physiological range. These PNIPAAm-based DNs demonstrate a 50-fold increase in compressive strength (~25 MPa, similar to cartilage) compared to traditional single network hydrogels while also achieving a cartilage-like modulus (~1 MPa) and hydration (~80%). By directly comparing to healthy cartilage (porcine), these hydrogels are confirmed not only to parallel the strength, modulus and hydration of native articular cartilage but also exhibit a 50% lower coefficient of friction (COF). The exceptional cartilage-like properties of the PAMPS/P(NIPAAm-co-AAm) DN hydrogels makes them candidates for synthetic cartilage grafts for chondral defect repair, even in load-bearing regions of the body.



As of 7 April, the official death toll remained at 602 people. The number of houses recorded as destroyed or damaged, meanwhile, increased to 239,682, including 111,163 houses totally destroyed, 112,735 partially destroyed, and 15,784 flooded. There has reportedly been an increase in women-headed households as a result of the disaster, according to humanitarian partners and authorities, although exact numbers are yet to be verified or confirmed.

At least 160,927 people were sheltering in 164 sites across Manica (43); Sofala (113); Tete (5) and Zambezia (3), according to government figures. The number of sites reported in Manica more than doubled from 6 to 7 April (20 to 43), while the number of people accommodated in the sites in Manica increased from 13,115 to 24,419. The previous reported figures for Manica had not included data on several sites, including in Sussundenga district and particularly in Dombe posto.

Some 389 new cholera cases were recorded on 7 April, bringing the total number of registered cases to 3,161, according to the Ministry of Health. Beira recorded the majority of the new cases (246 cases recorded on 7 April), followed by Nhamatanda (75 cases), Buzi (42 cases) and Dondo (26 cases). More than 593,000 people were vaccinated as of 7 April, representing 73 per cent of the people targeted.


• Distribution of seeds for the winter harvest will start on 8 April in Manica province.

• More than 756,200 individuals have received food assistance since Cyclone Idai made landfall, including 10,000 people receiving ready-to-eat meals in Beira city.

• The number of houses recorded as destroyed or damaged has increased to 239,682.

• Some 389 new cases of cholera were reported on 7 April, in Beira (246 cases), Nhamatanda (75 cases) and Dondo (26 cases) and Buzi (42 cases), including one death.

• At least 593,000 people had received the Oral Cholera Vaccine as of 7 April, representing 73 per cent of the total target.

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