3 January 2019

News Release

WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus traveled over the New Year to Ebola-affected areas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to review the response at this critical phase. Efforts to end the outbreak are continuing after recent disruptions, but further interruptions could have serious consequences, he warned.

Civil unrest resulted in vandalism to an Ebola transit centre in Beni and several other health facilities last week. The insecurity slowed down vaccinations and epidemiological surveillance and follow-up for several days.

“I’m concerned about the impact of the recent disruptions at this critical moment. This outbreak is occurring in the most difficult context imaginable. To end it the response needs to be supported and expanded, not further complicated. Ebola is unforgiving, and disruptions give the virus the advantage,” said Dr Tedros.

On the three-day mission (31 December 2018 – 2 January 2019) to Beni, Butembo and Komanda, Dr Tedros took stock of the outbreak, spent time with affected communities, and personally thanked responders for their dedication. WHO has 380 response staff in North Kivu and Ituri working together with hundreds more from the Ministry of Health and partners.

“The Ebola responders are sacrificing a lot,” said Dr Tedros. “They’ve worked flat-out for months, away from their families, to combat one of the world’s deadliest viruses in a risky environment. I’m proud of them, and I wanted to tell them that personally over the New Year holiday.”

Director of the Wellcome Trust and Chair of WHO’s Research and Development Blueprint Dr Jeremy Farrar joined the mission to see the outbreak first-hand.

“I came away humbled by the dedication of the Ebola responders, but worried by the immense challenges they face in such a complex environment. This outbreak is in a critical phase. It is vital the international community recognizes this and ensures the DRC and WHO have the support needed to ensure this outbreak does not spiral out of control,” Dr Farrar said.

Since the outbreak began in August 2018, there have been 608 cases and 368 deaths in North Kivu and Ituri provinces. To date, more than 54,000 high-risk contacts and frontline responders have been vaccinated, and almost every new patient receives one of four investigational treatments, something which was never previously possible during an Ebola outbreak.

The main challenges are the security environment, pockets of mistrust among affected populations, and poor infection prevention and control in many public and private health facilities. Under the government’s leadership and working collaboratively with UN and NGO partners, WHO is committed to addressing these challenges and ending the outbreak.

Another sourcee VOX News tells  22.1. 2019

n 1952, WHO launched the Global Influenza Surveillance Network  with 26 collaborating laboratories around the world. Today, renamed the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS), the 66-year old network comprises 153 institutions in 114 countries. It constantly monitors influenza viruses causing seasonal outbreaks in people, zoonotic outbreaks, and potential pandemics and makes vaccine selection decisions twice a year, for the northern and southern hemisphere influenza seasons. Countries with National Influenza Centres share virus samples and data to support this continuous monitoring.

“GISRS is the frontline in the fight against influenza. It is one of the oldest and most significant examples of international cooperation for public health,” said Dr Zhang. “Confidence, trust and sharing, with commitment from Member States, is critical to pandemic preparedness.”

2018 Nov;60(11):773-782. doi: 10.1007/s12033-018-0114-3.

DNA Vectors Generating Engineered Exosomes Potential CTL Vaccine Candidates Against AIDS, Hepatitis B, and Tumors.


Eukaryotic cells constitutively produce nanovesicles of 50-150 nm of diameter, referred to as exosomes, upon release of the contents of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). We recently characterized a novel, exosome-based way to induce cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunization against full-length antigens. It is based on DNA vectors expressing products of fusion between the exosome-anchoring protein Nef mutant (Nefmut) with the antigen of interest. The strong efficiency of Nefmut to accumulate in MVBs results in the production of exosomes incorporating huge amounts of the desired antigen. When translated in animals, the injection of Nefmut-based DNA vectors generates engineered exosomes whose internalization in antigen-presenting cells induces cross-priming and antigen-specific CTL immunity. Here, we describe the molecular strategies we followed to produce DNA vectors aimed at generating immunogenic exosomes potentially useful to elicit a CTL immune response against antigens expressed by the etiologic agents of major chronic viral infections, i.e., HIV-1, HBV, and the novel tumor-associated antigen HOXB7. Unique methods intended to counteract intrinsic RNA instability and nuclear localization of the antigens have been developed. The success we met with the production of these engineered exosomes opens the way towards pre-clinic experimentations devoted to the optimization of new vaccine candidates against major infectious and tumor pathologies.


Constitutive transport elements; Ex

(Duodecim, in Finnish)

Flying after diving (In Finnish)

Many of the molecules which effect both endocytosis and autophagy seem to be more or less connected with Rab7A protein, herein referred to as Rab7, an important participant at the crossroads of the trafficking and the development of these two organelle types and in their route carrying the cargo to be ultimately degraded for reuse. The process of how autophagosomes and endosomes is guided to merge with lysosomes is one of the crucial steps in autophagy and endocytosis. In this paper we will discuss the role of Rab7, a protein belonging to the family of small GTPases, in these processes.


► Autophagy and endosomal degradation processes do converge and also contain common molecules ► Rab7 protein acts in a critical point of maturation process of both autophagosomes and endosomes ► Rab7 takes part in the transportation of autophagosomes and endosomes towards lysosomal degradation ► The action of Rab7 in autophagy and endocytosis is highly regulated ► The control of Rab7 may provide a means to control diseases in which autophagy or endocytosis is disturbed.



Dev Cell. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 Apr 20.

Published in final edited form as:
Dev Cell. 2015 Apr 20; 33(2): 176–188.

doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2015.02.011

This  article describes an identified multi-subunit complex BORC  that regulates lysosome positioning (BLOC-one-related complex).

There is  a movements,  centripetal ( inward)  and centrifugal ( outward) movement of lysosomes between two populations:  a juxtanuclear cluster centered on the microtubuli organizing  center MTOC, and  peripheral scattered  cluster throughout  the sytoplasma.  The centrifugal (outward movement)  is mediated by a small GTPase Arl8 and its effector SKIP which link  lysosomes to the plus (+) end directed microtubule motor Kinesin-1 . BORC associates peripherally with lysosomal membrane and recruits Arl8, may be  as an adaptor to Arl8 ( not äs its GEF).  This pathway may  have implications in immuno-oncology.

Importance in switch between cell catabolism and anabolism

While most amino acids indirectly activate mTORC1 in mammals, Leucine has the ability to directly activate mTORC1 in cells that are depleted of amino acids. Yeast contain LRS (leucyltRNA synthetase), which is a molecule that can interact with Rags, directly activating the molecule.[15]

Akula Murali: Defining the importance of proteingeranylgeranylation in innate immunity, Gothenburg University

RHO family proteins and other intracellular proteins are prenylated with a 20-carbon lipid—a product of the cholesterol synthesis pathway—by protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I)

CD antigen chart

December 14, 2018

These  Clusters of differentiation are  important e.g.  in  immuno-oncology.

363 CDs are known .


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