If You are interested about  proteostasis , this article is  good to read.


July 10, 2019

Recommendations and Guidelines Free Access
Diagnosis of inherited platelet function disorders: guidance from the SSC of the ISTH
P. Gresele
for the Subcommittee on Platelet Physiology
First published: 18 November 2014
Cited by: 76
Manuscript handled by: S. Eichinger
Final decision: F. R. Rosendaal, 6 November 2014


Other articles  concerning rheology

from Milano University

Article and   video  has been  robbed  from  internet. you tube video from the Hospital Jose Ignacio Baldo( caracas) . Now abandoned, looted.

El Infierno de los hospitales de Venezuela | Qué Vaina!

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17 apr. 2019 – EL Hospital General Dr. José Ignacio Baldó también conocido como Hospital El … Libertador del Distrito Capital, al oeste de la ciudad de Caracas y al centro … Hace 80 años el hospital José ignacio Baldó (El Algodonal) era …

Example FMD: OIE  rapport. Venezuela Country and zone without an official status for FMD.


Total population (2016) 31,568,000
Gross national income per capita (PPP international $, 2013) 17,890
Life expectancy at birth m/f (years, 2016) 70/79
Probability of dying under five (per 1 000 live births, 2017) 31
Probability of dying between 15 and 60 years m/f (per 1 000 population, 2016) 217/93
Total expenditure on health per capita (Intl $, 2014) 923
Total expenditure on health as % of GDP (2014) 5.3
Latest data available from the Global Health Observatory

This page links all WHO information to its response on the Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

Outbreaks and emergencies

  • Zika virus infection – Venezuela
    3 December 2015
  • On 27 November 2015, the National IHR Focal Point of Venezuela received notification of 7 suspected cases of Zika virus infection. The diagnoses were made by the national reference laboratory, the “Rafael Rangel” National Institute of Hygiene. Four samples tested positive for Zika virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results were re-confirmed by Colombia’s National Institute of Health (INS). The cases, whose age ranges from 40 to 55 years old, are all women from areas that border Brazil. Venezuelan health authorities are implementing prevention and control measures. Investigations are ongoing.

    WHO advice

    Given the increased transmission of Zika virus in the Region of the Americas, PAHO/WHO recommends that its Member States establish and maintain the capacity to detect and confirm cases of Zika virus infection, prepare their health services for a potential additional burden at all levels of health care, and implement an effective public communications strategy to reduce the mosquitoes that transmit this disease, particularly in areas where this vector is present. The complete set of recommendations is available in the latest Epidemiological Update (see related links).

Synthetic Cartilage

April 28, 2019

Biomacromolecules. 2019 Apr 22.

doi: 10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00237. [Epub ahead of print]
Double Network Hydrogels that Mimic the Modulus, Strength and Lubricity of Cartilage.
Means AK, Shrode CS, Whitney LV, Ehrhardt DA, Grunlan MA.

The development of a hydrogel-based synthetic cartilage has the potential to overcome many limitations of current chondral defect treatments. Many efforts have attempted to replicate the unique characteristics of cartilage in hydrogels, but none simultaneously achieved high modulus, strength and toughness while maintaining the necessary hydration required for lubricity. Herein, double network (DN) hydrogels, composed of a poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) 1st network and a poly(N-isopropyl-acrylamide-co-acrylamide) [P(NIPAAm-co-AAm)] 2nd network, are evaluated as a potential off-the-shelf material for cartilage replacement. While predominantly used for its thermosensitivity, PNIPAAm is employed to achieve superior mechanical properties and its thermal transition temperature tuned above the physiological range. These PNIPAAm-based DNs demonstrate a 50-fold increase in compressive strength (~25 MPa, similar to cartilage) compared to traditional single network hydrogels while also achieving a cartilage-like modulus (~1 MPa) and hydration (~80%). By directly comparing to healthy cartilage (porcine), these hydrogels are confirmed not only to parallel the strength, modulus and hydration of native articular cartilage but also exhibit a 50% lower coefficient of friction (COF). The exceptional cartilage-like properties of the PAMPS/P(NIPAAm-co-AAm) DN hydrogels makes them candidates for synthetic cartilage grafts for chondral defect repair, even in load-bearing regions of the body.


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