The World Health Organization recommends that no person under 18 should use a sunbed
Stricter controls are needed on sunbed use

17 March 2005 | GENEVA – Today, the World Health Organization (WHO) is highlighting that sunbed use poses a risk of skin cancer, and that no person under 18 years of age should use a sunbed. It is known that young people who get burnt from exposure to UV will have a greater risk of developing melanoma later in life, and recent studies demonstrate the direct link between the use of sunbeds and cancer.

WHO highlights its recommendations as many people, especially young women in developed countries, prepare to get a tan in anticipation of summer.

Worldwide, WHO says, there are an estimated 132 000 cases of malignant melanoma (the most dangerous form of skin cancer) annually, and an estimated 66 000 deaths from malignant melanoma and other skin cancers. These figures continue to rise: in Norway and Sweden, the annual incidence rate for melanoma is estimated to have more than tripled in the last 45 years, while, in the United States, the rate has doubled in the last 30 years. Growth in the use of sunbeds, combined with the desire and fashion to have a tan, are considered to be the prime reasons behind this fast growth in skin cancers.

Worldwide, the incidence of melanoma varies more than 150-fold. The highest rates are found mainly in those nations where people are fairest-skinned and where the sun tanning culture is strongest: Australia, New Zealand, North America and northern Europe. One in three cancers worldwide is skin-related; in the United States, that figure is one in two. There are an estimated 1.1 million annual cases of skin cancer in the United States.

“There has been mounting concern over the past several years that people and in particular, teenagers are using sunbeds excessively to acquire tans which are seen as socially desirable. However, the consequence of this sunbed usage has been a precipitous rise in the number of skin cancer cases,” said Dr Kerstin Leitner, WHO Assistant Director-General responsible for environmental health. “We are therefore calling attention to this fact and we would hope that this recommendation will inspire regulatory authorities to adopt stricter controls on the usage of sunbeds.”

Some sunbeds have the capacity to emit levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation many times stronger than the mid-day summer sun in most countries. At present, however, only a few countries have effective regulations on sunbeds or their use. Belgium, France and Sweden have legislation, limiting the maximum proportion of UV-B (the most dangerous component of UV radiation) in the UV output to 1.5% (a similar level of the carcinogenic UV that is emitted by the sun). In France the regulations require all UV radiation-emitting appliances to be declared to the health authority, minors under the age of 18 are banned from their use, trained personnel must supervise all commercial establishments and any claim of health benefit is forbidden. The State of California in the United States prohibits anyone under 18 from using sunbeds/tanning salons. Often, however, effective implementation of regulations remains a challenging issue. WHO encourages countries to formulate and reinforce laws in order to better control the use of sunbeds such as the ban of all unsupervised sunbeds operations.

Some of the main consequences of excess UV exposure include skin cancers, eye damage and premature skin ageing. A study in Norway and Sweden, for example, found a significant increase in the risk of malignant melanoma among women who had regularly used sunbeds. Furthermore, excessive UV exposure can reduce the effectiveness of the immune system, possibly leading to a greater risk of infectious diseases.

Acute effects of UV radiation on the eye include cataracts, pterygium (a white coloured growth over the cornea) and inflammations of the eye such as photokeratitis and photoconjunctivitis. This is why protective goggles are recommended when using a sunbed.

Only in very rare and specific cases, WHO counsels, should medically-supervised sunbed use be considered. Medical UV devices successfully treat certain skin conditions such as dermatitis and psoriasis. These treatments should only be conducted under qualified medical supervision in an approved medical clinic and not unsupervised either in commercial tanning premises or at home using a domestic sunbed.

WHO’s recommendation on sunbed usage is part of its overall efforts to protect the health of those people who could be overexposed to UV radiation. WHO, along with its partners, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization, have elaborated the Global Solar UV Index, which is now used in many countries including Argentina, Australia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Israel, Mexico, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland, and has recently been adopted for general usage in the United States and Canada.

“In all of our actions, we are clear: avoid excess exposure to UV and, when you have to be in the sun, protect your skin. Malignant melanomas, other cancers and conditions are the consequence of not taking the proper precautions,” added Dr Leitner.

INES Manual

February 18, 2017

Alphabet of ugarit

February 12, 2017

This clay tablet was discovered at the site of Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra) located along the Syrian coast, 10 km north of Latakia. Ugarit was the capital city of the Empire bearing the same name.

The Ugarit excavations present important collections of cuneiform tablets. These tablets reveal the usage of cuneiform script to write various different languages including Sumerian, Acadian- Babylonian, Hurrian, Cypriote, Aegean and Hittite. Also discovered were Egyptian Hieroglyphic scripts. This wide diversity of languages indicates the richness and notability of Ugarit among the nations of the old world, particularly in terms of communication, commercial interaction and cultural openness. It is evident that the scribes of Ugarit knew of the various people’s scripts and languages and used them in their commercial correspondences.

Yet, the greatest role of this city is the thinking of its people and the development of the first ever phonetically based script. To transcend the accumulation of various languages and the confusion this caused, the people of Ugarit developed their own writing system. They changed the cuneiform script to represent the sounds of their spoken tongue. While previously writing was only for a special class of rulers or priests, the people of Ugarit put into writing their own everyday language, and made the capacity for writing and the preservation of knowledge more widely available.

They abbreviated hundreds of cuneiform syllables into the 29 letters representing sounds used in the spoken language of the people of Ugarit. Thus the first alphabet was created and the history of writing was transformed.

The alphabet of Ugarit was found transcribed on some small tablets in the royal palace of the city which was discovered in 1948. This tablet is read from left to right and its letters are ordered phonetically in a manner which we later find in the Canaanite, Aramaic and Arabic written letters. Speaking to the French Academy in 17 February 1950, the scientist Charles Virolleaud said: “There is no doubt that we will not know the name of the alphabet creator, but we know that he is Phoenician or in general Syrian, and we can say that the people, who achieved this miracle, deserve our gratitude, and it has the right to have a special dignity in the history of the world.”

So –  Good New Year and the blessing  to work   from the Congregations of our Greater God !  If His mercy and Love  is for  us human beings, so  the problems become helped.  he  Himself fins  the solution to create our Eden-  planet with fresh water – from the cosmic  beginning.  Surely there are  advices  He gan  give to the  mankind  if  we are asking  the wisdom from Him.

How much there are uranium in the debris?  Is it possible  it is enriching i self  to critical masses there inside  a pit-who- knows-where;   which atoms it can  make  active and  enriched.  I should not  like to  to settle down  very near  to that  cosmic abscess. Of cause there can  happen a nuclear  reaction. Also,  the radiation  seems to behave   non linear way  .  May  God help  the  scientists to find a way to extinguish   in this kind of case.


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