Capital San Jose 30 km from the  volcano Turrialba.  In the  Metropol area  is living one third of the people about 2 million.  .,_Costa_Rica

SAN JOSÉ: A volcano erupted Friday near the capital of Costa Rica, choking surrounding communities with smoke and ash. In the capital San Jose, 30 kilometers (19 miles) from the Turrialba volcano, the air reeked of sulphur as dust and ash coated buildings and vehicles. “It seems to me to be the strongest (Turrialba) eruption in the past six years,” volcanologist Gino Gonzalez said in televised comments. He spoke to media near the site of the eruption, where a vast cloud of grey smoke was billowing from the 3,340-meter (11,000-foot) volcano. Television channels showed footage of shuttered schools and hundreds of people flocking to hospitals with breathing and skin problems. The National Emergencies Commission in a statement advised people to wear masks and tight clothing to protect their lungs and skin from the ash. Gonzalez said the wind was blowing the ash and smoke westward, toward the country’s most populated areas. –AFP


Volcanoes of Costa Rica – John Seach

The volcanic arc in Costa Rica developed as a result of
subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate.

  • Costa Rica lies close to 5 tectonic plates – Caribbean, Panama, Nazca, Cocos, and Atlantic.
    Volcanoes of Costa Rica:



Rincon de la Vieja







Turrialba : An explosion yesterday 20.5. 2016. History:

Khartoum uutiset

May 12, 2016


An evangelical pastor held without charge in a Sudanese prison since December has been released, according to his brother.

Telahoon Nogose Kassa was held by the authorities after they were arrested by Sudan’s National Intelligence and Security Services. The other, Rev Hassan Abduraheem Kodi Taour, vice-moderator of the Sudanese Church of Christ (SCOC), remains in custody.

Kassa’s brother wrote on his Facebook page: “Finally, Telahoon is released, thanks for your prayers and hope the rest will be released.”


Severe thiamine deficiency causes, beriberi, which is a disorder typically associated with a diet consisting largely of polished rice. It may also occur when refined wheat flour forms a major part of the diet and among alcoholics and food faddists. Thiamine deficiency can develop within 2-3 months of inadequate consumption; it is characterized either by cardiac involvement with oedema or by peripheral neuropathy, with intermediate forms between these two extremes also occurring. Left untreated, thiamine deficiency leads to disability and death. In the past decade, several refugee populations that were wholly dependent on food aid have developed thiamine deficiency.

This document is intended primarily as a basis for ensuring adequate thiamine intake among populations in emergency settings. It reviews strategies for preventing thiamine deficiency among refugees and analyses factors influencing success and failure. Also included are a review of the literature on the epidemiology of thiamine deficiency and its signs and symptoms; thiamine’s properties and functions and the recommended daily allowance; and a discussion of food sources of this vitamin and its stability.

Thiamine deficiency and its prevention and control in major emergencies is the second in an occasional WHO series on the prevention and control of micronutrient deficiencies during emergencies. Reviews concerning scurvy and pellagra are also available.

40% Chance  to get rain  on Saturday.

Justin Trudeau, Canada’s prime minister, described the week’s harrowing events as the largest fire evacuation in Alberta’s history.

The Area of ALBERTA is a20% larger than France in Europe.

Fitoterapia. 2015 Apr;102:134-48. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2015.02.012. Epub 2015 Feb 27.

A comprehensive scientific overview of Garcinia cambogia.


The fruit rind of Garcinia gummi-gutta, commonly known as Garcinia cambogia (syn.), is extensively used traditionally as a flavourant in fish curries due to its sharp sour taste. Additional ethnobotanical uses include its use as a digestive and a traditional remedy to treat bowel complaints, intestinal parasites and rheumatism. This small fruit, reminiscent of a pumpkin in appearance, is currently most popularly used and widely advertised as a weight-loss supplement. Studies have shown that the extracts as well as (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a main organic acid component of the fruit rind, exhibited anti-obesity activity including reduced food intake and body fat gain by regulating the serotonin levels related to satiety, increased fat oxidation and decreased de novo lipogenesis. HCA is a potent inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase, a catalyst for the conversion process of citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which plays a key role in fatty acid, cholesterol and triglycerides syntheses. The crude extract or constituents from the plant also exerted hypolipidaemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anthelmintic, anticholinesterase and hepatoprotective activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Phytochemical studies of various plant parts revealed the presence of mainly xanthones (e.g. carbogiol) and benzophenones (e.g. garcinol) together with organic acids (e.g. HCA) and amino acids (e.g. gamma aminobutyric acid). Currently, a large number of G. cambogia/HCA dietary supplements for weight management are being sold although the possible toxicity associated with the regular use of these supplements has raised concerns. In most cases, complaints have been related to multicomponent formulations and at this stage G. cambogia has not been confirmed as the potentially toxic culprit. This review presents a scientific overview of G. cambogia with reference to relevant botanical aspects, ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and biological activity as well as toxicity.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Garcinia cambogia; Garcinia gummi-gutta; Hydroxycitric acid; Malabar tamarind; Obesity; Toxicity

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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