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First of the answers:  Article , Oct 1, 2018


2018 Oct 9;9(5). pii: e01771-18. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01771-18.
Staufen1 Interacts with Multiple Components of the Ebola Virus Ribonucleoprotein and Enhances Viral RNA Synthesis.

Ebola virus (EBOV) genome and mRNAs contain long, structured regions that could hijack host RNA-binding proteins to facilitate infection. We performed RNA affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to identify host proteins that bind to EBOV RNAs and identified four high-confidence proviral host factors, including Staufen1 (STAU1), which specifically binds both 3′ and 5′ extracistronic regions of the EBOV genome. We confirmed that EBOV infection rate and production of infectious particles were significantly reduced in STAU1-depleted cells. STAU1 was recruited to sites of EBOV RNA synthesis upon infection and enhanced viral RNA synthesis. Furthermore, STAU1 interacts with EBOV nucleoprotein (NP), virion protein 30 (VP30), and VP35; the latter two bridge the viral polymerase to the NP-coated genome, forming the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex. Our data indicate that STAU1 plays a critical role in EBOV replication by coordinating interactions between the viral genome and RNA synthesis machinery.IMPORTANCE Ebola virus (EBOV) is a negative-strand RNA virus with significant public health importance. Currently, no therapeutics are available for Ebola, which imposes an urgent need for a better understanding of EBOV biology. Here we dissected the virus-host interplay between EBOV and host RNA-binding proteins. We identified novel EBOV host factors, including Staufen1, which interacts with multiple viral factors and is required for efficient viral RNA synthesis.


RNA binding proteins; RNA replication; ebola virus; virus-host interactions

2016 Jul 30;388(10043):498-503. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30386-5. Epub 2016 May 18.

Late Ebola virus relapse causing meningoencephalitis: a case report.

Jacobs M1, Rodger A2 et al.



There are thousands of survivors of the 2014 Ebola outbreak in west Africa. Ebola virus can persist in survivors for months in immune-privileged sites; however, viral relapse causing life-threatening and potentially transmissible disease has not been described. We report a case of late relapse in a patient who had been treated for severe Ebola virus disease with high viral load (peak cycle threshold value 13.2).


A 39-year-old female nurse from Scotland, who had assisted the humanitarian effort in Sierra Leone, had received intensive supportive treatment and experimental antiviral therapies, and had been discharged with undetectable Ebola virus RNA in peripheral blood. The patient was readmitted to hospital 9 months after discharge with symptoms of acute meningitis, and was found to have Ebola virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). She was treated with supportive therapy and experimental antiviral drug GS-5734 (Gilead Sciences, San Francisco, Foster City, CA, USA). We monitored Ebola virus RNA in CSF and plasma, and sequenced the viral genome using an unbiased metagenomic approach.


On admission, reverse transcriptase PCR identified Ebola virus RNA at a higher level in CSF (cycle threshold value 23.7) than plasma (31.3); infectious virus was only recovered from CSF. The patient developed progressive meningoencephalitis with cranial neuropathies and radiculopathy. Clinical recovery was associated with addition of high-dose corticosteroids during GS-5734 treatment. CSF Ebola virus RNA slowly declined and was undetectable following 14 days of treatment with GS-5734. Sequencing of plasma and CSF viral genome revealed only two non-coding changes compared with the original infecting virus.


Our report shows that previously unanticipated, late, severe relapses of Ebola virus can occur, in this case in the CNS. This finding fundamentally redefines what is known about the natural history of Ebola virus infection. Vigilance should be maintained in the thousands of Ebola survivors for cases of relapsed infection. The potential for these cases to initiate new transmission chains is a serious public health concern.


Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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