Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. As societies reconsider the legal status of cannabis, policy makers and clinicians require sound knowledge of the acute and chronic effects of cannabis. This review focuses on the latter.

A systematic review of Medline, PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar using the search terms “cannabis,” “marijuana,” “marihuana,” “toxicity,” “complications,” and “mechanisms” identified 5,198 papers. This list was screened by hand, and papers describing mechanisms and those published in more recent years were chosen preferentially for inclusion in this review.

FINDINGS: There is evidence of psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone toxicity associated with chronic cannabis use. Cannabis has now been implicated in the etiology of many major long-term psychiatric conditions including depression, anxiety, psychosis, bipolar disorder, and an amotivational state. Respiratory conditions linked with cannabis include reduced lung density, lung cysts, and chronic bronchitis. Cannabis has been linked in a dose-dependent manner with elevated rates of myocardial infarction and cardiac arrythmias. It is known to affect bone metabolism and also has teratogenic effects on the developing brain following perinatal exposure. Cannabis has been linked to cancers at eight sites, including children after in utero maternal exposure, and multiple molecular pathways to oncogenesis exist.


Chronic cannabis use is associated with psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone effects. It also has oncogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects all of which depend upon dose and duration of use.

Enough  alcohols and alcaloids to make a mummy of  the new generation.

A letter from Equador

April 20, 2016

James Strauss:  Dear friends,

Longest & most terrible moments of my life

We were just finishing up the dress rehearsal for the concert, 80 musicians on stage, final preparations. Suddenly everything started to shake. I was stunned and remained in my position. The conductor stopped without understanding the gravity of the situation when the light bulbs from the ceiling exploded. I began helping a member of the orchestra who has mobility problems. The earthquake seemed never-ending, almost 3 minutes of panic. We were able to evacuate the theater before part of the ceiling fell on the orchestra. An hour later on the way home, Guayaquil was without light, chaos in the streets, the police asking them to stay away from buildings, because there would be aftershocks.. I slept very little, feeling my building shaking all night…But everything is back to control, I’m still a little scared… But they say the worst is over…

Manta, Equador , quakes

April 20, 2016

3 days ago (16th April ) Earth  quake 7.8 R in Equador. epicentre 29.2 km from Muisne. Depht 19 km.

Clusters of  lesser  quakes.

CNN  18th  April 2016

The death toll has soared to 272, Ecuador’s President Rafael Correa said Sunday evening. That number is expected to rise as rescue teams dig through the rubble, he said.
Earlier that day, Vice President Jorge Glas had estimated that at least 2,527 people were injured.
The hardest-hit area was the coastal Manabi Province, where about 200 people died, said Ricardo Peñaherrera of Ecuador’s national emergency management office. The cities of Manta, Portoviejo and Pedernales, a tourist destination, saw the most devastation but damage was widespread throughout the country.
“The first hours are crucial,” Correa said. “We’re finding signs of life in the rubble. We’re giving this priority. After, we’ll work to find and recover bodies.”
People looking for family and friends frantically dug with their hands and tools until excavation equipment arrived.



Leabright's Blog

Just another weblog is the best place for your personal blog or business site.