Ps. 91 ZelZach

October 23, 2014

http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2691.htm

Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Feb;19(2):270-3. doi: 10.3201/eid1902.120524.
Ebola virus antibodies in fruit bats, bangladesh.
Olival KJ1, Islam A, Yu M, Anthony SJ, Epstein JH, Khan SA, Khan SU, Crameri G, Wang LF, Lipkin WI, Luby SP, Daszak P.
Author information
Abstract

To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.

PMID:
23343532
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3559038

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Arch Virol. 2014 May;159(5):1129-32. doi: 10.1007/s00705-012-1477-6. Epub 2012 Sep 21.
Reston virus in domestic pigs in China.
Pan Y1, Zhang W, Cui L, Hua X, Wang M, Zeng Q.
Author information
Abstract

Historically, Reston virus (RESTV) has been found to be associated with outbreaks of disease only in nonhuman primates. Its spread to domestic pigs was reported for the first time in 2008. In this study, we report the discovery, molecular detection, and phylogenetic analysis of Reston virus (RESTV) in domestic pigs in China. A total of 137 spleen specimens from pigs that died after showing typical clinical signs of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), and for which infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was confirmed by RT-PCR, were collected from three farms in Shanghai from February to September 2011. Of these samples, 2.92 % (4/137) were found to be positive for RESTV. All of the positive piglets were under the age of 8 weeks and were co-infected with PRRSV. Sequences were found that shared 96.1 %-98.9 % sequence similarity with those of two RESTV variants that had been discovered previously in domestic pigs and cynomolgus macaques from the Philippines. We therefore conclude that RESTV was present in domestic pigs in Shanghai, China.

PMID:
22996641
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Science. 2009 Jul 10;325(5937):204-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1172705.
Discovery of swine as a host for the Reston ebolavirus.
Barrette RW1, Metwally SA, Rowland JM, Xu L, Zaki SR, Nichol ST, Rollin PE, Towner JS, Shieh WJ, Batten B, Sealy TK, Carrillo C, Moran KE, Bracht AJ, Mayr GA, Sirios-Cruz M, Catbagan DP, Lautner EA, Ksiazek TG, White WR, McIntosh MT.
Author information
Abstract

Since the discovery of the Marburg and Ebola species of filovirus, seemingly random, sporadic fatal outbreaks of disease in humans and nonhuman primates have given impetus to identification of host tropisms and potential reservoirs. Domestic swine in the Philippines, experiencing unusually severe outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory disease syndrome, have now been discovered to host Reston ebolavirus (REBOV). Although REBOV is the only member of Filoviridae that has not been associated with disease in humans, its emergence in the human food chain is of concern. REBOV isolates were found to be more divergent from each other than from the original virus isolated in 1989, indicating polyphyletic origins and that REBOV has been circulating since, and possibly before, the initial discovery of REBOV in monkeys.

PMID:
19590002
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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J Infect Dis. 2011 Nov;204 Suppl 3:S757-60. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir296.
Reston ebolavirus in humans and animals in the Philippines: a review.
Miranda ME1, Miranda NL.
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Abstract

The 2008 Reston ebolavirus infection event in domestic pigs has triggered continuing epidemiologic investigations among Philippine health and veterinary agencies in collaboration with international filovirus experts. Prior to this, there were only 3 known and documented Reston ebolavirus outbreaks in nonhuman primates in the world, all traced back to a single geographic source in the Philippines in a monkey breeding/export facility. The first one in 1989 was the first-ever Ebola virus that emerged outside of Africa and was also the first known natural infection of Ebola virus in nonhuman primates. When it was first discovered among laboratory monkeys in the United States, the source was immediately traced back to the farm located in the Philippines. The second outbreak was in 1992-93. The third episode in 1996 was the last known outbreak before Reston ebolavirus reemerged in pigs in 2008. The isolated outbreaks involving 2 animal species bring forth issues requiring further investigations, and highlight the significance of intersectoral collaboration to effectively address zoonoses prevention and control/response in the interest of minimizing public health risk.

PMID:
21987747
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text

BMC Vet Res. 2012 Oct 11;8:189. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-189.
Analysis of the humoral immune responses among cynomolgus macaque naturally infected with Reston virus during the 1996 outbreak in the Philippines.
Taniguchi S1, Sayama Y, Nagata N, Ikegami T, Miranda ME, Watanabe S, Iizuka I, Fukushi S, Mizutani T, Ishii Y, Saijo M, Akashi H, Yoshikawa Y, Kyuwa S, Morikawa S.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Ebolaviruses induce lethal viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) in humans and non-human primates, with the exceptions of Reston virus (RESTV), which is not pathogenic for humans. In human VHF cases, extensive analyses of the humoral immune responses in survivors and non-survivors have shown that the IgG responses to nucleoprotein (NP) and other viral proteins are associated with asymptomatic and survival outcomes, and that the neutralizing antibody responses targeting ebolaviruses glycoprotein (GP1,2) are the major indicator of protective immunity. On the other hand, the immune responses in non-human primates, especially naturally infected ones, have not yet been elucidated in detail, and the significance of the antibody responses against NP and GP1,2 in RESTV-infected cynomolgus macaques is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the humoral immune responses of cynomolgus macaque by using serum specimens obtained from the RESTV epizootic in 1996 in the Philippines to expand our knowledge on the immune responses in naturally RESTV-infected non-human primates.
RESULTS:

The antibody responses were analyzed using IgG-ELISA, an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA), and a pseudotyped VSV-based neutralizing (NT) assay. Antigen-capture (Ag)-ELISA was also performed to detect viral antigens in the serum specimens. We found that the anti-GP1,2 responses, but not the anti-NP responses, closely were correlated with the neutralization responses, as well as the clearance of viremia in the sera of the RESTV-infected cynomolgus macaques. Additionally, by analyzing the cytokine/chemokine concentrations of these serum specimens, we found high concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, such as IFNγ, IL8, IL-12, and MIP1α, in the convalescent phase sera.
CONCLUSIONS:

These results imply that both the antibody response to GP1,2 and the proinflammatory innate responses play significant roles in the recovery from RESTV infection in cynomolgus macaques.

PMID:
23057674
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3528628

Free PMC Article

http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/video/nation/10/21/14/how-philippines-will-battle-ebola-outbreak

PLoS One. 2013 Nov 21;8(11):e79665. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079665. eCollection 2013.
Foraging behaviour and landscape utilisation by the endangered golden-crowned flying fox (Acerodon jubatus), the Philippines.
de Jong C1, Field H, Tagtag A, Hughes T, Dechmann D, Jayme S, Epstein JH, Smith C, Santos I, Catbagan D, Lim M, Benigno C, Daszak P, Newman S.

PLoS One. 2013;8(12). doi:10.1371/annotation/67f7a1ef-d1bb-4752-a44e-beaca05a126b. Epstein, Jonathan [corrected to Epstein, Jonathan H].

Abstract

Species of Old World fruit-bats (family Pteropodidae) have been identified as the natural hosts of a number of novel and highly pathogenic viruses threatening livestock and human health. We used GPS data loggers to record the nocturnal foraging movements of Acerodon jubatus, the Golden-crowned flying fox in the Philippines to better understand the landscape utilisation of this iconic species, with the dual objectives of pre-empting disease emergence and supporting conservation management. Data loggers were deployed on eight of 54 A. jubatus (two males and six females) captured near Subic Bay on the Philippine island of Luzon between 22 November and 2 December 2010. Bodyweight ranged from 730 g to 1002 g, translating to a weight burden of 3-4% of bodyweight. Six of the eight loggers yielded useful data over 2-10 days, showing variability in the nature and range of individual bat movements. The majority of foraging locations were in closed forest and most were remote from evident human activity. Forty-six discrete foraging locations and five previously unrecorded roost locations were identified. Our findings indicate that foraging is not a random event, with the majority of bats exhibiting repetitious foraging movements night-to-night, that apparently intact forest provides the primary foraging resource, and that known roost locations substantially underestimate the true number (and location) of roosts. Our initial findings support policy and decision-making across perspectives including landscape management, species conservation, and potentially disease emergence.

PMID:
24278154
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3836874

Free PMC Article

CNN tells: 1989 – In Reston, Virginia, macaque monkeys imported from the Philippines are found to be infected with the Ebola virus (later named the Ebola-Reston virus).

http://edition.cnn.com/2014/04/11/health/ebola-fast-facts/

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