The Lancet, Volume 368, Issue 9541, Pages 1106 – 1118, 23 September 2006
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69440-3Cite or Link Using DOI
This article can be found in the following collections: The Lancet Core Clinical Collection; Public Health; Global Health; Infectious Diseases (Infectious diseases-other)

Human schistosomiasis

Prof Bruno Gryseels MD a Corresponding AuthorEmail Address, Katja Polman PhD a, Jan Clerinx MD a, Prof Luc Kestens PhD a


Schistosomiasis or bilharzia is a tropical disease caused by worms of the genus Schistosoma. The transmission cycle requires contamination of surface water by excreta, specific freshwater snails as intermediate hosts, and human water contact. The main disease-causing species are S haematobium, S mansoni, and S japonicum. According to WHO, 200 million people are infected worldwide, leading to the loss of 1·53 million disability-adjusted life years, although these figures need revision. Schistosomiasis is characterised by focal epidemiology and overdispersed population distribution, with higher infection rates in children than in adults. Complex immune mechanisms lead to the slow acquisition of immune resistance, though innate factors also play a part.
Acute schistosomiasis, a feverish syndrome, is mostly seen in travellers after primary infection. Chronic schistosomal disease affects mainly individuals with long-standing infections in poor rural areas. Immunopathological reactions against schistosome eggs trapped in the tissues lead to inflammatory and obstructive disease in the urinary system (S haematobium) or intestinal disease, hepatosplenic inflammation, and liver fibrosis (S mansoni, S japonicum).
The diagnostic standard is microscopic demonstration of eggs in the excreta. Praziquantel is the drug treatment of choice. Vaccines are not yet available. Great advances have been made in the control of the disease through population-based chemotherapy but these required political commitment and strong health systems.

Iraq in health crises

July 23, 2014

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Such kind of tunnels to  Jewish State are costly to Gazan people :   18 m undergrowth and many kilometers long tunnels, and plenty tunnels  of that kind.  With that  investment    Gazans could have  built  a big civilian city for  tens of thousands  families.


Octahedral nut , Amalek

July 23, 2014

in old  minimal volyme  map , written in the Bible,  the Creator  planned to Himself   materialization  in  time and   space, the Holy of Holies among  mankind,   Already  3 thousand years ago ,  in the (City)  Temple plan of Ezechiel is the architectural  teaching how to build     large volymes for  big cities for mankind to live in peace.  the   innermost structure was  a polarized  cubic , locating  on earth.

The symbol of the existence  of Israel , the  Star of David  in 2D is  an octahedral in 3D.

So one can  see the logic of the octahedral nut, which is the  recognition sign of neo nazistic  gangs, even in Finland.

Always  when Israel is  in  an affliction for its very  existence in the  Jewish State  as  now, after  Hamas has gathered a pile of  bigger weapons  during  the silence of  many years and  cut   numerous tunnels towards Israelian villages- the  space of  Israel –  always  when Israel  is then  suddenly  defending itself, all the octahedral- nut  gangs also  in the world begin to  strangle and choke the  life of Jewish people- as Amalek.

For Shaul Mofaz- Plan

July 23, 2014

. ISRAELIN pääministeri Benyamin Netanyahu on lämmennyt Shaul Mofazin tekemään esitykseen Gazan alueen julistamiseksi kansainvälisessä valvonnassa aseettomaksi vyöhykkeeksi. Mofaz arvioi, että kansainvälinen yhteisö voisi tarjota 40 miljardia USD Gazaan alueen kehittämistä ja uudelleen rakentamista varten.

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