Crimean Jewish history , Cities Eupatoria , Feodosia , Kerch
March 4, 2014
EUPATORIA ( Koslow), one of the most ancient City of Crimea, celebrating its 2500year of existence over te years ago: 2003.
FEODOSIA ( THEODOSIA , Caffa) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feodosia
Ottoman control ceased when the expanding Russian Empire conquered the whole Crimea in 1783. It was renamed Feodosiya (Феодосия), a Russian version of the ancient Greek name.The city was occupied by the forces of Nazi Germany during World War II, sustaining significant damage in the process. The Jewish population numbering 3,248 before the German occupation was murdered by SD-Einsatzgruppe D between November 16 and December 15, 1941. A monument commemorating the holocaust victims is situated at the crossroads of Kerchensky and Symferopolsky highways. On Passover eve, April 7, 2012, unknown persons desecrated, for the sixth time, the monument, allegedly as an anti-Semitic act.
KERCHIN (PANTIKAPAION, Kerch) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerch
On the Eastern Front of World War II from 1941 to 1945, Kerch was the site of heavy fighting between Soviet Army and Axis forces. After fierce fighting, the city was taken by the Germans in November 1941. On 30 December 1941 the Soviets recaptured the city in a naval landing operation. In 1942 the Germans occupied the city again. The Red Army lost over 160,000 men, either killed or taken POW at the Battle of the Kerch Peninsula. On 31 October 1943 another Soviet naval landing operation was launched. Kerch was finally liberated on 11 April 1944.
The German invaders killed about 15,000 citizens and deported another 14,000 during their occupation. Evidence of German atrocities in Kerch was presented in the Nuremberg trials. After the war, the city was awarded the title Hero City.
The Adzhimushkay catacombs (mines) in the city’s suburbs were the site of guerrilla warfare against the occupation. Thousands of soldiers and refugees found shelter inside, and were involved in counterattacks. Many of them died underground, including those who died of numerous alleged poison gas attacks. Later, a memorial was established on the site.
In 1954, it was transferred to the administrative control of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic with the rest of Crimea.